The case method describes realmanagement issues in real companies. Cases are used as a basis for classdiscussion and give participants the opportunity to take on the roles of keyplayers in actual business situations. By engaging students in business conflicts developed from real events, cases immerse students in thechallenges they are expected to face. Challenges that require thoughtful analyses with limited or even insufficient information. That require effective responses within ambiguous circumstances or complex economic and politicalcontexts. That, most of all, demand decisive action that must be articulated -and even defended - among other talented, ambitious individuals.
The case study discusses the construction of the BurjDubai (later renamed the Burj Khalifaon its inauguration), the world's tallest building, in Dubai. The project, which commenced in September 2004, was conceived by the Dubai government and Emaar Properties PJSC to consolidate the emirate's status as a key business and tourist hub.
The case talks about the design of the tower and mentions its unique features. It also provides some details about the construction process and the various challenges and delays that arose during the project. The case concludes with amention of the conditions in the real estate market in Dubai at the end of 2009 and its effect on companies like Emaar and projects like the Burj Dubai.
When students are presented with the case, they place themselves in the role of the decision maker as they read through the situation and identify the problem they are faced with. The nextstep is to perform the necessary analysis - examining the causes and considering alternative courses of actions to come to a set of recommendations.
The statement of the Lead Project Manager of Burj Khalifa summarizes the importance of project managent in this case:
*The statement of the Lead Project Manager of Burj Khalifa summarizes the importance of project managent in this case: The way you build a building like this is to fast track it, you can't wait until you get all the designs in place.. or you will be sitting in your office for three years trying to get the design finish before you can tender it .. with large parts of the structure still on the drawing board... the construction team heads into the sky.."
In the beginning the people had no idea how it would finish, how tall it would be or how they were going to achieve it. Even how much it was going to cost was unknown. >> All they had was a common goal: the world's tallest building
As we reach for the skies in our own collective impact projects, we should think of the Burj and other wonderful feats. Here are three ways to start working differently: 1. Do not have a logframe or Gantt chart mapped out with every activity at the beginning 2. Work in distinct phases; i.e. start up, community readiness, design and action. 3. Be quick to fail fast, learn quickly and move on.
What are the research questions and key objectives?
Issues: 1. Evaluate the prospects of the world's tallest building in improving the economicprospects of a region. The Prospects of the world's tallest building in improving the economic prospects of a region are not countable, but let's focus on a few. It's a great decision to start something extraordinary, something bigger and taller than everything existing that time. Impressive buildings are objectives for many tourists and a reason why people all around the world start to travel. People get thrilled by superlative architechture, scary hights and impressive architechture itsellf. So called emblems cost tons of mony in advance, but they may bring back way more than the entry rates. The whole region gets more interesting and worth seeing. Burj Khalifa has not only been an architectural feature of the city but has also had a socio-economical impact.
2. Evaluate the economic benefits and costs associated with supertall structures. The costs of supertall structures are immensly high compared to normal construction costs for ordinaray buildings. The total construction cost of Burj Khalifa was $1,500,000,000. Other buildings (smaller buildings) still may cost way more money than the Burj Khalif. It depends on the difficulty of the construction. It makes a big difference if you build a skyscarper made of glass or simple with cement. The one world trade center will cost around 3.9 billion and the Abraj Al Bait Towers will cost up to 15 billion US Dollars, even when they are "smaller" as the Burj Khalif. Still important is the complexity of the construction. The benefits mostly don‘t justifiy the extraordinary high costs, the building is more a symbol for the wealth of a country than really worth the money. BEfore starting a project you never know how much you will get in reward, so there's unsecurity. Maybe the entry fee and the rent won't pay the building soon, but all the people who start travelling to Dubai to see it and spend money in every section of business in Dubai, they will be a bigger reward for the country itself. * 3. Recognize the risks associated with long-term projects There are many risks associated with long-term projects. The time you start a project you'll never know if it will work out the way it was planned. So one big issue is your insurance. What happens when the project won't work out? Who pays the workers and the loss? Probably a few treaties are already made with companies who want to work in that bulding or rent these rooms.. how do you get out of these treaties again? Who will pay if the costs rise way higher then expected? Are there any climate / political reasons why there are problems for the project? Possible wars?
Elaborate on the role of theory, theoretical framework, related models and methods.
The case method is a profound educational innovation that presents the greatest challenges confronting leading companies,non-profits, and government organizations - complete with the constraints and incomplete information found in real business issues - and places the student in the role of the decision maker. There are no simple solutions; yet through the dynamic process of exchanging perspectives, countering and defending points, and building on each other's ideas, students become adept at analyzing issues, exercising judgment, and making difficult decisions
Define your research approach, consider validity, reliability, sampling etc.
As our sources we considered the world wide web as a great possibility to get access to many information for this project. On the other hand we had the chance to check another case study to see great information about the project itself, the design of the building, all the companies involved etc. One of the group members went to Dubai the time to see the construction while taking an helicopter ride, so the may give some further information to the construction and the danger the people were exposed to.
Define and prepare your research instruments, reources and medi to be used etc.
A building with “no peer” and an “incomparable feat of engineering” (Emaar, 2009) is how Burj Khalifa is described on its website. Situated in the urban hub of Dubai, U.A.E, andstanding tall and proud at 828 metres, Burj Khalifa is currently the world’s tallest building. The skyscraper has been designed to be “the Arab world’s tribute tothe art and science of modern engineering and design” (Emaar, 2009). Burj Khalifa was inaugurated on 4th January 2010, at a cost of $1.5 billion. It serves as a mixed-use building,including 30,000 apartments and 9 hotels. It currently holds 17 World Records, most of which are linked to the height of the building. It also gives space to many office spaces.
Wanted poster Former names Burj Dubai Record height Tallest in the world since 2010[I] Preceded by Taipei 101 General information Type Mixed-use Architectural style Neo-futurism Location 1 Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Boulevard, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Construction started 6 January 2004 Completed 30 December 2009 Opening 4 January 2010 Cost USD $ 1.5 billion Height Architectural 828 m (2,717 ft) Tip 829.8 m (2,722 ft) Roof 828 m (2,717 ft) Top floor 584.5 m (1,918 ft) Observatory 555.7 m (1,823 ft) Technical details Floor count 163 floors plus 46 maintenance levels in the spire and 2 parking levels in the basement (Total: 211 floors) Floor area 309,473 m2 (3,331,100 sq ft) Lifts/elevators 58, made by Otis Elevator Company Design and construction Architect Adrian Smith at SOM Developer Emaar Properties Structural engineer Bill Baker at SOM Main contractor Samsung Engineering and Construction Company, Besix and Arabtec Supervision Consultant Engineer & Architect of Record Hyder Consulting Construction Project Manager Turner Construction Grocon Planning Bauer AG and Middle East Foundations Lift contractor Otis VT consultant Lerch Bates
Architecture The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward. The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf. Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.
In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 "Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa" award by the CTBUH. On 28 September 2010 Burj Khalifa won the award for best project of year at the Middle East Architect Awards 2010. A new award was bestowed on the Burj Khalifa by the CTBUH at its annual "Best Tall Buildings Awards Ceremony" on 25 October 2010 when the building was honored as first recipient of CTBUH’s new Tall Building "Global Icon" Award. According to the CTBUH the new "Global Icon" award recognizes those very special supertall skyscrapers that make a profound impact, not only on the local or regional context, but on the genre of tall buildings globally. Which is innovative in planning, design and execution, the building must have influenced and reshaped the field of tall building architecture, engineering, and urban planning. It is intended that the award will only be conferred on an occasional basis, when merited by an exceptional project perhaps every ten or fifteen years. CTBUH Awards Chair Gordon Gill, of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture said: "There was discussion amongst members of the jury that the existing ‘Best Tall Building of the Year’ award was not really appropriate for the Burj Khalifa. We are talking about a building here that has changed the landscape of what is possible in architecture a building that became internationally recognized as an icon long before it was even completed. ‘Building of the Century’ was thought a more appropriate title for it." Beside these awards, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of following awards.
2012 • Award of Merit for World Voices Sculpture, Burj Khalifa Lobby from Structural Engineers Association of Illinois (SEAOI), Chicago.
2011 • Interior Architecture Award, Certificate of Merit from AIA - Chicago Chapter.
2011 • Distinguished Building Award, Citation of Merit from AIA - Chicago Chapter.
2011 • Interior Architecture Award: Special Recognition from AIA - Chicago Chapter.
2011 • Design Excellence Award: Special Function Room.
2011 • Excellence in Engineering from ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) - Illinois Chapter.
2011 • Outstanding Structure Award from International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.
2011 • Decade of Design, Presidential Commendation in Corporate Space Small from International Interior Design Association (IIDA).
2011 • Decade of Design • Best of Category/Mixed Use Buildings from International Interior Design Association (IIDA).
2011 • GCC Technical Building Project of the Year from MEED (formerly Middle East Economic Digest)
2011 • Project of the Year from MEED.
2010 • International Architecture Award.
2010 • Arab Achievement Award 2010: Best Architecture Project from Arab Investment Summit.
2010 • Architecture Award (Mixed Use) Dubai from Arabian Property Awards.
2010 • Architecture Award (Mixed Use) Arabian Region from Arabian Property Awards.
2010 • International Architecture Award from Chicago Athenaeum.
2010 • American Architecture Award from Chicago Athenaeum.
2010 • Commercial / Mixed Use Built from Cityscape.
2010 • Best Mixed Use Built Development in Cityscape Abu Dhabi.
2010 • Skyscraper Award: Silver Medal from Emporis.
2010 • Award for Commercial or Retail Structure from Institution of Structural Engineers.
2010 • International Architecture Award (Mixed Use) from International Commercial Property Awards.
2010 • Special Recognition for Technological Advancement from International Highrise Awards.
2010 • Best Structural Design of the Year from LEAF Award.
2010 • International Projects Category: Outstanding Project from National Council of Structural Engineers Associations.
2010 • Best of What's New from Popular Science Magazine.
2010 • Spark Awards, Silver Award.
2010 • Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure from SEAOI
Burj Khalifa and skyline of Dubai, 2010
January 2004: Excavation commences.
February 2004: Piling starts.
21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction.
March 2005: Structure of Burj Khalifa starts rising.
June 2006: Level 50 is reached.
February 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower as the building with the most floors.
13 May 2007: Sets record for vertical concrete pumping on any building at 452 m (1,483 ft), surpassing the 449.2 m (1,474 ft) to which concrete was pumped during the construction of Taipei 101, while Burj Khalifa reached the 130th floor.
21 July 2007: Surpasses Taipei 101, whose height of 509.2 m (1,671 ft) made it the world's tallest building, and level 141 reached.
12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower antenna, which stands 527.3 m (1,730 ft).
12 September 2007: At 555.3 m (1,822 ft), becomes the world's tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the CN Tower in Toronto, and level 150 reached.
7 April 2008: At 629 m (2,064 ft), surpasses the KVLY-TV Mast to become the tallest man-made structure, level 160 reached.
17 June 2008: Emaar announces that Burj Khalifa's height is over 636 m (2,087 ft) and that its final height will not be given until it is completed in September 2009.
1 September 2008: Height tops 688 m (2,257 ft), making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland.
17 January 2009: Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).
1 October 2009: Emaar announces that the exterior of the building is completed.
4 January 2010: Burj Khalifa's official launch ceremony is held and Burj Khalifa is opened. Burj Dubai renamed Burj Khalifa in honour of the President of the UAE and ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan.
10 March 2010 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Burj Khalifa as world's tallest building.
DATEN: 78 Unternehmen 16 14 Berater Auftragnehmer 3 Finanzinstitute 2 2 Besitzer Immobiliengesellschaften 3 sup Lieferanten 38 Lieferanten: Burj Khalifa porject wurde im Zusammenhang mit
Write the publication and iterate towards a harmonized paper writing.
What are specific tasks and roles for the OER writing? Collaborators can define here additional tasks to be investigated orto be shared among members.
Some information about the project itself.
A building with no peer and an incomparable feat of engineering (Emaar - 2009) is how Burj Khalifa is described on its website. Situated in the urban hub of Dubai, U.A.E, andstanding tall and proud at 828 metres, Burj Khalifa is currently the world’s tallest building. The skyscraper has been designed to be “the Arab world’s tribute to the art and science of modern engineering and design” (Emaar, 2009). Emaar, founded in 1997, is one of the world largest real estate companies which is liable for the design of the tower. Emaar completed many important great buildings over the years in places like Saudi Arabia, India etc.
The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward. The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf. Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.
Burj Khalifa was inaugurated on 4th January 2010, at a cost of $1.5 billion. It serves as a mixed-use building,including 30,000 apartments and 9 hotels. It currently holds 17 World Records, most of which are linked to the height of the building. It also gives space to many office spaces.
Wind Tunnel Testing
*Wind Tunnel Testing Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Khalifa to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base. Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times. Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that effects super-tall building design, and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height. Special studies were carried on Burj Khalifa to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design.
*Interiors The interior design of Burj Khalifa public areas was also done by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP and was led by award-winning designer Nada Andric. It features glass, stainless steel and polished dark stones, together with silver travertine flooring, Venetian stucco walls, handmade rugs and stone flooring. The interiors were inspired by local culture while staying mindful of the building's status as a global icon and residence.
*Artwork Over 1,000 pieces of art from prominent Middle Eastern and international artists adorn Burj Khalifa and the surrounding Mohammed Bin Rashid Boulevard. Many of the pieces were specially commissioned by Emaar to be a tribute to the spirit of global harmony. The pieces were selected as a means of linking cultures and communities, symbolic of Burj Khalifa being an international collaboration.
Was the project a failure or a success?
* Was the project a failure or a success?
Dobson states (2007) that "the internal measure of project success may be whether the project accomplished what it was supposed to accomplish." The important thing is that an evaluation of the project should focus on the whole process from the planning phase to the outcome (ibid). The prime criterion of success is what has been called the "Iron Triangle", a criterion which measures the project based on three perspectives: cost, time and quality (Atkinsin 1999). This project evaluating criterion has continued in the last few decades as a basic way to measure a success of failure of project. In this sense, Burj Khalifa project also can be measured by the "Iron Triangle" method of evaluation.
Before examining the project by Iron Triangle, It is possible to measure the cost and time variance in between initial plan and actual result by the earned value analysis to view the overview of project. The EVA uses measure the performance of project (Anbari, 2003). Figure 2 shows how the project worked. From the point of view of cost, the initial planned costs of the Burj Khalifa project was $876 million dollars. The final cost, however, was approximately $1.5 billion dollar  . It is important to find reasons why this increase in cost occurred. First of all, a rise in prices of raw materials had gone up significantly due to the downturn of the global economy in 2008. According to report of Global InformineI  (2008), the price of iron had increased by 75% within a year. Other materials such as aluminum and cement also increased (appendix 2). Increase of price of commodities caused a factor to increase construction cost. On the other hand, a change of design was also responsible for the cost increase. The Emaar property which is ordering company of project decided to change the final height of building: the final construction was 100 meters higher than the original design (Al abbar, 2008). Thus, unexpected costs were incurred. Moreover, changes in interior design planning were another reason for the increase in costs. The Burj Khalifa aimed at being the world's best building and wished for that building to have the best facilities. Thus, Emaar made a contract with luxury hotel chain Armani. The Armani wanted to change the initial interior design of hotel. It is clear that the project spent more money in order to change the design of the lobby and to add more luxurious fittings and furnishings to the rooms. Due to the overrun of its budget, as it can be seen in fiure2, the project's earned value is decreased compare to initial plan and cost. The project's cost management did not perform well. Naturally, these cost factors are linked to time, which is another important criterion of the "Iron Triangle" method of evaluation. Originally, the duration of project was set for forty-seven months, starting from February 2005 to December 2008, although excluding excavation time. However, the Burj Khalifa project was completed nine months later, on September 2009. As examined above, a change of design influenced not only costs of project, but also the duration of the construction as, needless to say, additional work was required with respect to changes in the design planning. In addition to this, Dubai's deteriorating economic condition caused a delay in construction. This was called the "Dubai shock", and was caused by the bubble in real estate investment (Brach and Loewe 2010). As a result, this economical decline halted construction for four months in 2008. Figure 3 shows the comparison between original plan and actual duration of project. Finally, it is possible to use quality as a critical measure of the success or failure of a project. Jha and Iyer (2007) insist that the most significant factor is the project manager's competence in order to achieve the stated goals. In this sense, resources management can be a one of key factors that could contribute depends on who build the building. The main constructor, Samsung engineering and Besix, introduced new technologies based on previous experiences with tall building construction. For example, Burj Khalifa was built using "mixed reinforced concrete" in order to stand against heavy wind and pressure. The bottom of the building receives massive amounts of pressure, thus the strength of the concrete is very important (Abdelrazaq, 2008). To achieve this successfully, the engineers did practice tests several times prior to the construction of the tower (ibid). The purpose of the tests was to see how the building would function under certain conditions. This testing phase was important because it allowed engineers to plan according to successful test-case studies. If these tests were not carried out, and problems were found later during the construction of the building, the cost of the project might have increased significantly. Also, from the service perspective, the facilities of tower met requirements of its stakeholders such as customers and interested parties. This fact is necessary to measure the quality of project as unfavourable project to stakeholders can cause the unexpected problems and uncertainty to the project that contribute to failure of project (Kalsen, 2002). As mentioned above, the reasons for delay were due to the Emaar wanting to change the exterior and interior design plans, and the unexpected economic costs that this incurred for the project. From the point of quality, the project is successful.
Although the Burj Khalifa project spent more money and time that initially planned, this is not enough to assume that the project was a failure. For example, the Sydney opera house project spent 16 times more than the original budget estimated. Yet, it is still regarded as a successful project (Litsikakis, 2009). Thus, a more nuanced and sophisticated application of success and failure is required, one which goes beyond using basic standards such as time and cost.
Other Performance indicators
*Other Performance indicators
Success of a project should not be measured simply according to whether it finished on time and within the estimated budget. According to Wideman (1996) definition: "project success is seen as a strategic management concept where project efforts must be aligned with the strategic long-term goals of the organization" This means that the project can have a value when the project meets objectives from short-term to long-term. In this sense, the Burj Khalifa project can also be measured by the following criteria. Benefits over time remain an essential standard by which to measure the project. Wideman states (1996) that projects can be evaluated as time passes: short-term, medium-term and long-term (Table 2). Furthermore, it is crucial to define success who is the users of Burj Khalifa and what kind of benefits brought to its stakeholders. When the project evaluated in this aspect, firstly, the project achieved its initial functional objectives of design. There are no functional changes with respect to the project. The facilities of the tower, such as hotel or residences, are available for use by the customers. These benefits are not limited only to domestic people. Burj Khalifa has become the landmark of Dubai and plays a role as one of the most popular tourist attractions in Dubai. Many people come to see the tower and enjoy luxurious facilities. Secondly, the project just finished one year ago and thus it is hard to calculate exactly its success or failure in terms of the mid-term time-frame. However, the financial statements of Emaar could be the criterion for measuring its performance after the opening of the tower. The net profit increased about 10 times compared to 2009. Furthermore, the portion of revenue which came from external customers and sales of residence also dramatically increased (Appendix 3). When one considers the fact that there were no big constructions last year at Emaar, a large portion of the increased revenue can therefore be attributed to the Burj Khalifa project. It is true that the Burj Khalifa project did not successfully meet its schedule and budget in terms of the internal project objectives (table 2). However, from the perspective of the society level, Dubai has struggled with debts which were generated due to indiscriminate urban development planning and spending (Brach and Loewe, 2010). Many experts were concerned whether the project would be completed or not. Although the project was delayed by nine months, it was eventually completed. One of notable features of the project is that there are many constructions in a 'suspended' state in Dubai as a result of current economic situation. Thus, the fact that the Burj Khalifa project was completed can be a yardstick for measuring its success as a project. If construction was continually delayed, the possibility of the project failing (and incurring even more costs) would have been increased because risk also grows as well (Barkely, 2004). Consequently, in a number of respects, overall outcomes of Burj Khalifa met its objectives. Hence, the project can be regarded as a successfully completed project.